Specific language impairment or dysphasia
Children with specific language impairments (SLI) appear to have great difficulties acquiring language naturally, however they have a normal cognitive ability and present no sensory or motor disturbance, nor have a lack of adequate stimulation in their environment.
A child shows language delays when there is a delay in their first words or phrases and their pronunciation appears slow. The children have immature phrases, poor vocabulary and unintelligible pronunciation.
Dyslalias are disturbances in the pronunciation of some sounds, children who suffer from this cannot adequately pronounce certain sounds (for example, ‘RR of hurry’) so they miss it out, (and instead say ‘huy’) substitute it (‘hully’ or ‘huggy’) or distort it. This can be because of functional causes (bad habits) or organic causes (anatomical such as a tied tongue, dental malocclusion etc.)
problems with communication or relationships, having difficulty with the use of language and relationships with others. Communication ranging from looks and gestures to the type of contextualized words in a given environment.
Stuttering or stammering
stuttering is considered a difficulty in fluidity or the appearance of repetition, prolongations, freezing, circumlocutions, and/or physical tension for an unusual amount of time.
the voice is produced through the coordination of three devices – respiratory, laryngeal and oral. Dysphonia is a disorder of one of these three devices, which affects the specific qualities of the voice (tone, volume, ring, duration or flexibility).
Hyper nasal speech
this is a disorder caused by an abnormal closing or opening in the airway which causes difficulty in speaking intelligibly. The most common cause is usually from an anatomical origin.
a disorder affecting the articulation of sounds. It is caused by anatomical alterations of the speech organs and therefore causes functional difficulties (problems with swallowing, pronunciation, breathing etc.)
this is a myofunctional disorder characterized by a deviation from the normal oral pattern of swallowing. It can appear by itself or accompanied by changes in breathing, chewing, occlusal trauma or neurological compromise. It interferes with the normal development of orofacial structures, speech, general health and aesthetics.
this involves difficulties learning to read and/or write with impaired comprehension, as a result of difficulties in the operations or communications of the systems involved in reading. There are also other causes such as neurological problems, learning difficulties, mental deficiencies etc.